By John M. Cohn, David J. Garrod, Visit Amazon's Rob A. Rutenbar Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Rob A. Rutenbar, , L. Richard Carley
This publication offers an in depth precis of study on computerized structure of device-level analog circuits that was once undertaken within the overdue Nineteen Eighties and early Nineties at Carnegie Mellon collage. We concentrate on the paintings at the back of the construction of the instruments known as KOAN and ANAGRAM II, which shape a part of the center of the CMU ACACIA analog CAD method. KOAN is a tool placer for customized analog cells; ANANGRAM II an in depth sector router for those analog cells. we try to provide the motivations in the back of the structure of those instruments, together with certain dialogue of the delicate know-how and circuit issues that has to be addressed in any profitable analog or mixed-signal structure device. Our process in organizing the chapters of the booklet has been to give our algo rithms as a sequence of responses to those very genuine and extremely tough analog format difficulties. ultimately, we current a variety of examples of effects generated via our algorithms. This learn used to be supported partly by means of the Semiconductor study Corpora tion, through the nationwide technological know-how origin, via Harris Semiconductor, and by way of the overseas company Machines company Resident research software. eventually, only for the checklist: John Cohn used to be the clothier of the KOAN placer; David Garrod used to be the fashion designer of the ANAGRAM II router (and its predeces sor, ANAGRAM I). This booklet used to be architected by means of all 4 authors, edited via John Cohn and Rob Rutenbar, and produced in accomplished shape via John Cohn.
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11(a)). • Device reorientation: a device is chosen at random and its orientation is changed to one of the eight orthogonal rotation and/or mirror values Basic Placement 41 possible by combining 90° rotations with mirroring in the X and Y direction. 11(b)). Rotation and/or mirroring occurs about the device's center. • Device swap: two devices are chosen at random and their center coordinates are interchanged. 11(c)). • Terminal translation: an external terminal device is chosen at random and its position is translated to a new randomly selected coordinate on the periphery of the playing field.
The Basic Placement 35 information regarding which process layers are significant is specified for each technology in a technology description file. To improve the efficiency of overlap checking, our protection frame scheme abstracts away the interior detail of device terminal geometry into a single least-enclosing rectangle for each layer. This minimizes the number of shapes which must be examined when checking for device overlap. However, all details of the geometry which might effect minimum spacing between adjacent devices or affect the possibility for geometry sharing are retained.
For example, placement systems which adopt the slicing layout style must rely on 42 CHAPTER 2 rather complex move-sets  which guarantee that only legal intermediate placement configurations will' be visited. However, these same systems tend to have very simple cost-functions, because the cost function need not contain terms designed to penalize illegal configurations. Conversely, a system such as KOAN which uses a flat placement model, requires a comparatively simple move-set at the expense of a more complex cost-function.