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By Ian McNeil

* 22 sections conceal the complete box of the background of expertise and every part summarises the advance of its topic from the earliest instances to the current day* Written with no pointless jargon* 2 wide indexes of Names and themes* Usefully illustrated with a hundred and fifty black & white images and line drawings to provide an explanation for key advances`Contain[s] an unlimited quantity of trustworthy info over a really huge box. it's definitely a piece of which I shall myself make common use ... it merits to discover a spot ... in each reference library.' - instances greater schooling Supplement`The insurance is superb ... a Most worthy single-volume resource which for its comprehensiveness and simplicity of reference will earn its position in either professional and normal reference collections.' - Reference Reviews`Informative and accomplished, impressive in its insurance ... covers each element of expertise from the Stone Age to the distance Age ... will unquestionably support readers to get a grip on and believe of an important variety of topics ... a useful and sensible addition to most dept bookshelves or libraries.' - New Civil Engineer`The authors represented during this ebook are to be congratulated for his or her readable and trustworthy surveys of the previous and current prestige of the foremost parts the place mankind has harnessed technological know-how for the construction of beneficial items and processes.' - selection

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Galileo’s observations of the swinging altar lamp in the cathedral of Pisa marked the start of the use of the pendulum as a means of controlling the speed of clocks. Having no watch, he timed the swing of the lamp against his own pulse and established the time of the pendulum’s swing, finding that it varied not with its amplitude but according to the length of the pendulum. The Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens turned this knowledge to good effect when he built the first pendulum clock in 1656.

Among these was wild wheat as well as wild goat grass. It was the accidental cross-fertilization of these that led to the much more fruitful bread wheat, probably the first plant to be sown as a crop, which was harvested with a horn-handled sickle with 11 INTRODUCTION sharpened flints set into the blade with bitumen. At an oasis near the Dead Sea, as at other places, a village grew into a city: this was Jericho, with fortified walls and buildings, at first of reed and mud, then of unbaked clay until baked brick was used between 8000 and 6000 BC.

By the time of the Domesday Book, completed in AD 1086, this survey was to record over 5600 in use in England alone, mostly used for corn milling but possibly a few for ore crushing and for driving forge hammers. In building, the Romans used cranes frequently fitted with a treadmill to turn the windlass, the rope running in pulleys. The most powerful of them were of about 6 tonnes’ lifting capacity. The stone blocks were lifted by means of a ‘lewis’, a dovetail cut by a mason in the upper surface into which a wedgeshaped metal anchor was fitted and locked in place by a parallel-sided metal key.

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