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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Water Science and Technology Board, Committee on the Evaluation of Chesapeake Bay Program Implementation for Nutrient Reduction to Improve Water Quality

The Chesapeake Bay is North America's biggest and such a lot biologically diversified estuary, in addition to a major advertisement and leisure source. despite the fact that, over the top quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment from human actions and land improvement have disrupted the atmosphere, inflicting destructive algae blooms, degraded habitats, and lowered populations of many species of fish and shellfish. In 1983, the Chesapeake Bay software (CBP) used to be tested, in accordance with a cooperative partnership one of the U.S. Environmental security organization (EPA), the kingdom of Maryland, and the commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and the District of Columbia, to deal with the level, complexity, and assets of pollution coming into the Bay. In 2008, the CBP introduced a sequence of tasks to extend the transparency of this system and heighten its responsibility and in 2009 an government order injected new power into the recovery. moreover, as a part of the impression to enhance the speed of growth and bring up responsibility within the Bay recovery, a two-year milestone procedure was once brought geared toward lowering total toxins within the Bay via targeting incremental, momentary commitments from all of the Bay jurisdictions. The nationwide study Council (NRC) confirmed the Committee at the evaluate of Chesapeake Bay software Implementation for Nutrient relief in enhance Water caliber in 2009 in line with a request from the EPA. The committee used to be charged to evaluate the framework utilized by the states and the CBP for monitoring nutrient and sediment keep watch over practices which are applied within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to guage the two-year milestone technique. The committee used to be additionally to evaluate latest adaptive administration recommendations and to suggest advancements which may aid CBP to satisfy its nutrient and sediment aid pursuits. The committee didn't try and determine each attainable approach which may be carried out yet as an alternative interested by methods that aren't being applied to their complete capability or which could have huge, unrealized power within the Bay watershed. simply because lots of those innovations have coverage or societal implications which can now not be totally evaluated by means of the committee, the options are usually not prioritized yet are provided to motivate additional attention and exploration one of the CBP companions and stakeholders.

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2007). Such blooms harm estuarine ecosystems in several ways. They reduce water clarity and block sunlight, reducing the size, quality, and viability of underwater grasses (also known as submerged aquatic vegetation [SAV]) and other aquatic habitats. , 2002) and pose health threats to wildlife and humans (Havens, 2008). As phytoplankton and macroalgae die and decompose, dissolved oxygen is removed from the water column and bottom sediments. When the Bay is more strongly stratified in the summer, its bottom waters are not adequately replenished with dissolved oxygen to offset the effects of microbial decay under nutrient-enriched conditions.

TABLE 1-2 Percentage of Total Reduced Nitrogen (NHx) Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and to the Chesapeake Bay by Source/Sector Source/Sectors Percent of Atm. Deposition to Watershed Percent of Atm. 1 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Im 28 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY BOX 1-4 Continued TABLE 1-3 Percentage of Total Oxidized Reactive Nitrogen (NOy) Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and to the Chesapeake Bay by Source/Sector Source/Sectors Power plants (EGUs) Mobile sources (on road) Industry Off road; Construction; Marine Residential and commercial Other Total Percent of Atm.

All rights reserved. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Im 32 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY of dissolved oxygen is essential to the survival of aquatic organisms, such reductions can have substantial impacts on the local fauna. , 2002). Although phytoplankton and macroalgae require about 20 different nutrients and minerals to survive and reproduce (Reynolds, 2006), the macro-nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus tend to be the most important factors driving the eutrophication process in surface water bodies (NRC, 2000).

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